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Abrasives
Forum: Genel Konular
Son Yorum: ppl8963q
, 04:13 AM
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V-Belts
Forum: Genel Konular
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, 04:10 AM
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Vehicle Essentials: The I...
Forum: Genel Konular
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, 04:08 AM
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Benefits Of Using Electri...
Forum: Genel Konular
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, 04:06 AM
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Choosing Pots and Pans to...
Forum: Genel Konular
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, 04:04 AM
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How to Use Crutches, Cane...
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HOW ARE PLASTIC BOTTLES R...
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  Abrasives
Yazar: ppl8963q - , 04:13 AM - Forum: Genel Konular - Yorum Yok

How do abrasives work?
Abrasives Materials are hard crystals that are either found in nature or manufactured. The most commonly used of such materials are aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, cubic boron nitride, and diamond.
Other materials such as garnet, zirconia, glass, and even walnut shells are used for special applications.
Abrasives are primarily used in metalworking because their grains can penetrate even the hardest metals and alloys. However, their great hardness also makes them suitable for working with such other hard materials as stones, glass, and certain types of plastics. Abrasives are also used with relatively soft materials, including wood and rubber, because their use permits high stock removal, long-lasting cutting ability, good form control, and fine finishing.
Applications for abrasives generally fall in the following categories: 1) cleaning of surfaces and the coarse removal of excess material, such as rough off-hand grinding in foundries; 2) shaping, as in form grinding and tool sharpening; 3) sizing, primarily in precision grinding; and 4) separating, as in cut-off or slicing operations.


Vitrified Grinding Wheel is a cutting tool. It's an abrasive cutting tool. In a grinding wheel, the abrasive performs the same function as the teeth in a saw. But unlike a saw, which has teeth only on its edge, the grinding wheel has abrasive grains distributed throughout the wheel. Thousands of these hard, tough grains move against the workpiece to cut away tiny chips of material.

Abrasives—Grits and Grains
External Circular Grinding Wheels and other bonded abrasives have two major components-the abrasive grains that do the actual cutting and the bond that holds the grains together and supports them while they cut. The percentages of grain and bond and their spacing in the wheel determine the wheel's structure.
The particular abrasive used in a wheel is chosen based on the way it will interact with the work material. The ideal abrasive has the ability to stay sharp with minimal point dulling. When dulling begins, the abrasive fractures, creating new cutting points.
Each abrasive type is unique with distinct properties for hardness, strength, fracture toughness and resistance to impact.

Aluminum oxide is the most common abrasive used in grinding wheels. It is usually the abrasive chosen for grinding carbon steel, alloy steel, high speed steel, annealed malleable iron, wrought iron, and bronzes and similar metals. There are many different types of aluminum oxide abrasives, each specially made and blended for particular types of grinding jobs. Each abrasive type carries its own designation-usually a combination of a letter and a number. These designations vary by manufacturer.
Once the grain is known, the next question relates to grit size. Gear Grinding Wheels have a number designating this characteristic. Grit size is the size of individual abrasive grains in the wheel. It corresponds to the number of openings per linear inch in the final screen size used to size the grain. In other words, higher numbers translate to smaller openings in the screen the grains pass through. Lower numbers (such as 10, 16 or 24) denote a wheel with coarse grain. The coarser the grain, the larger the size of the material removed. Coarse grains are used for rapid stock removal where finish is not important. Higher numbers (such as 70, 100 and 180) are fine grit wheels. They are suitable for imparting fine finishes, for small areas of contact, and for use with hard, brittle materials.

To allow the abrasive in the wheel to cut efficiently, the wheel must contain the proper bond. The bond is the material that holds the abrasive grains together so they can cut effectively. The bond must also wear away as the abrasive grains wear and are expelled so new sharp grains are exposed.
There are three principal types of bonds used in conventional Resin Bonded Grinding Wheels. Each type is capable of giving distinct characteristics to the grinding action of the wheel. The type of bond selected depends on such factors as the wheel operating speed, the type of grinding operation, the precision required and the material to be ground.
Most grinding wheels are made with vitrified bonds, which consist of a mixture of carefully selected clays. At the high temperatures produced in the kilns where grinding wheels are made, the clays and the abrasive grain fuse into a molten glass condition. During cooling, the glass forms a span that attaches each grain to its neighbor and supports the grains while they grind.

Sharpening stones, or Whetstones, have a steeper learning curve than other sharpening options, but the payoff is huge. They offer more control and precision over the sharpness of your knives. Sharpening stones, also known as whetstones, are a type of stone used to sharpen knives. Sharpening stones include water stones (whetstones used with water) and oil stones (whetstones used with oil). Water and oil provide a lubricant on the surface to eliminate any extraneous friction, improve sharpening power, and prevent damage to the stone itself. Many chefs prefer a water stone to an oil stone – water is more convenient and facilitates a faster knife sharpening. For this guide, we will be referring to water stones when using the term "whetstone."
Whetstones come in different types of materials and coarseness. Coarse grit stones can be used on duller knives that need significantly more upkeep. Fine grit stones fine-tune the knives for greater precision and polishing.

Grains for Coated Abrasives
Coated Abrasives are grains applied over a surface, commonly in the form of belts, sheets, discs, and rolls where the grain is attached via a binder to the backing, then another layer of binder additionally supports the grains. Sandpaper is perhaps the most common type of coated abrasive. Widely used substrates are paper, cloth, vulcanized fiber, and plastic films which are available in grit sizes ranging from very coarse (~24 mesh ) to ultrafine (micron sizes). The international standard for coated abrasives is ISO 6344.
Coated abrasives can utilize abrasive grains with high-performance properties and excellent uniformity. Ceramic grains are also self-sharpening to prolong life and can be used on materials that are difficult to grind or finish.

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  V-Belts
Yazar: ppl8963q - , 04:10 AM - Forum: Genel Konular - Yorum Yok

What is a V-Belt?
Wrapped Type V- Belt Machine is a flexible machine element used to transmit power between a set of grooved pulleys or sheaves. They are characterized as belts having a trapezium cross-section. V-belts are the most widely used belt drives since their geometry causes them to wedge tightly into the groove as the tension is increased. As the belt wedges into the groove, friction between the surface of the belt is increased, allowing high torques to be transmitted. The increased friction minimizes the loss of power through slippage.

Overview of Belt Drives
Before going deeper into v-belts, it is important to know an overview of belt drives. Belt drives are machine elements that are used to transmit power between two or more rotating shafts, usually with parallel axes of rotation. The belts are looped over pulleys attached to the driver and follower shafts. These pulleys are placed at a certain distance to create an initial tension on the belt. When in operation, the friction causes the belt to grip onto the pulley. The rotation of the driver pulley increases the tension on one side of the belt creating a tight side. This tight side applies a tangential force to the follower pulley. Torque is then applied to the driven shaft. Opposite the tight side is the slack side where the belt experiences less tension.
There are many types of belt drives used today. The earliest type of belt drive uses a flat belt made from leather or fabric. Flat belts operate satisfactorily in low-power applications such as farm equipment, mining, and logging. At higher loads and speeds, they tend to slip on the surface of the pulleys and climb out of the pulley. Another early type of belt drive is a rope drive made from cotton or hemp. Rope drives are used on two pulleys with a V-shaped groove. This solved the problem of climbing out of the pulley enabling belt drives to be used over large distances. Later, this was developed into round beltswhich are made from elastomeric materials such as rubber, nylon, or urethane. The development of these elastomeric materials also brought the progress of belt drive technology. Belts such as v-belts, ribbed belts, multi-groove belts, and timing beltswere made to solve the problems of previous belt drives.

V-Belt Construction
An entire Classic V-belt Machine can be regarded as a composite material composed of different types of rubber and reinforcements. In its usual application, a v-belt is subjected to combined tensile and compressive stresses. The top side of a v-belt is subjected to a tensile force directed longitudinally, while the bottom side is compressed due to the compression against the grooves and bending as a belt segment passes the pulley. Moreover, a different type of material is also needed at the surface of the belt. Ideal material for the surface must have a high coefficient of friction and increased wear resistance.

  • Fabric Cover: This part of the v-belt has higher abrasion and contamination resistance. The cover protects the internals of the Agricultural V-belt Machine from harmful external effects such as a chemical attack, corrosion, and temperature. The materials used for covers are patented by different manufacturers. An example of these materials is aramid or Kevlar fiber.

  • Tension Cord or Member: Tension cords are embedded into the rubber compound creating a composite structure. The tension cord or member is the main power transmitting component. The cords are positioned at the pitch diameter of the belt cross-section to increase its tensile strength. The tension cord is usually made of polyester, steel, or aramid fibers. In some v-belt constructions, the tension cord is bonded into the core by an adhesion rubber.

  • Elastomer Core: The elastomer core holds the components together and gives the v-belt its trapezium cross-section. This is usually made from an elastomer with good shock resistance, high flexural strength, and excellent temperature stability. Common elastomers used are neoprene, EPDM, and polyurethane. In some designs, the elastomer core is divided into two sections separated by the tension cord. Above the tension cord is the top cushion rubber while below is the compression rubber. These two sections are made from different types of rubber because of the distinct type of stresses experienced.
In terms of structure, v-belts can be categorized as wrapped belts and raw edge belts. Wrapped v-belts are considered standard v-belts with all sides wrapped in a fabric cover. Wrapped v-belts have a higher resistance against external elements and quieter operation. However, the downside is a lower coefficient of friction resulting in power loss. Wrapped Cutting Type V- Belt Machines are used on applications that require some amount of slippage without damaging the belt.
In contrast with wrapped v-belts, raw edge v-belts do not have covers at their flanks. This means the elastomer core is exposed and in contact with the surface of the pulley. The elastomer core has a higher coefficient of friction than the fabric cover allowing for better grip.

In many synchronous conveying applications, Timing Belt Machine must be replaced as fast as possible.
So finding ways to reduce the time it takes to change a timing belt is an ongoing challenge for users. After all, every hour spent disassembling machinery and re-fitting or installing a belt is an hour of lost production that costs precious time and money.

There must be a better way
I want to look here at the solution we offered when an OEM customer asked us to find a way to reduce downtime when changing the timing belts in its machines.
These machines are sold to end users for the manufacture of wooden doors. The timing belts in the machines ensure the precise positioning of door elements while milling. Once these timing belts reach the ends of their lives, they must be replaced, and this was taking between five and seven hours. Why so long? Because customers had to disassemble shafts, pulleys and machine parts to change the belts.

V-Belt Geometry Terminologies
The cross-section of a v-belt is generally defined as a trapezium with the top and bottom sides in parallel. The type of V-belt Moulds can be defined by the dimensions of this trapezium. These dimensions are necessary for matching the belt with the appropriate pulley. In addition, v-belts are also defined by other geometries such as the location of the pitch line, inside and outside lengths, and so on. All of these are necessary when selecting and ordering a v-belt. Below is a summary of the important terms and definitions of v-belt geometry.

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  Vehicle Essentials: The Importance of Wheel Hubs
Yazar: ppl8963q - , 04:08 AM - Forum: Genel Konular - Yorum Yok

Wheels may look like they operate simply, but they are not called mankind’s best invention in vain. Whilst old wooden wheels weren’t as complicated as today’s car wheels, they provided the rotational force needed at the time, but nowadays, with plenty of new tech at our disposal, there’s no way a wheel can stay that simple.

The number of main wheel components goes up to a total of 6. First, you have the centre bore which is basically the opening of the wheel which allows it to fit on the axle. The centre disc is where the bolt holes are placed and what gets into contact with the axle seat. The lug holes are what makes the bolt circle. The spokes are what connects the centre disc to the ring of the wheel. The outer lip is the area of the wheel in front of the spokes. The barrel is the outermost part of the wheel and it is where the tire is mounted and lastly you have the Wheel Hubs.

What Is a Hub on a Wheel?
This component is located between the drive axle and the brake drums/ disc (brake). The car Wheel Hub for TOYOTA HIACE 43550-26010 is a crucial part that contributes to safe steering and it is the link that attaches the wheel to the car. The hub contains the wheel speed sensor which controls the ABS braking system and the assembly is also important for your vehicle’s (TCS) traction control system.

Does a Hub Assembly Come with Wheel Bearing?
Alongside the electronic safety features, a hub assembly also comes with wheel bearings as it also helps the wheel turn freely.

How Often Should Wheel Bearings Be Replaced?
Whilst OEM bearings can last longer than replacements, they also need to be replaced every 120,000km to 240,000km.

How to Tell If Your Wheel Bearing Is Going Bad?
There are different symptoms that tell you when your Wheel Bearings have gone bad.
The most common indicator is the roaring sound when metal is grinding on metal, which usually occurs due to lack of lubrication which means the bearing is worn out.

Another indication of damage is when the steering wheel is vibrating at a low speed and it gradually intensifies, the more you push on the gas pedal. Again, this is also the case of a worn out wheel bearing which can lead to the steering wheel feeling loose when turning or when driving downhill.
If you hear a clicking sound coming form the wheels which becomes repetitive when you accelerate, there could be a problem with the car Wheel Hub for TESLA 1044122-00-E too. This is the result of the brake caliper hitting the top of the wheels as it moves up and down which can indicate that the wheel hub assembly has been broken.
Knocking or clunking sounds are the result of excessive play in the CV and U-joints or excessive backlash in the differential gears. Whilst this is not usually related to the bearings, it can be felt when changing directions – going from forward to reverse or from accelerating to coasting.
A worn or damaged outer CV-joint can be the reason why you are hearing snapping, popping and clicking noises. This can also be associated to excessive bearing end play which can also produce inadequate clamping. You will usually hear these noises when making sharp turns or when cornering.


Wheel bearings are low maintenance parts, but that doesn’t mean they last forever. So, what does a wheel bearing actually do? How long does it last? And how can you help extend its lifespan?

What is a wheel bearing? And what does it do in a car?
A wheel bearing is a crucial part of the wheel assembly that connects the wheel and the axle. It is a set of steel balls (ball bearings) or tapers (tapered bearings), held together by a metal ring. It enables the wheel to rotate smoothly with a minimum of friction. Wheel Bearings are safety critical components designed to sustain radial and axial loads caused by gravitation, acceleration, breaking & cornering forces, so they need to be replaced when they stop working properly.

How long does a wheel bearing last?
Wheel bearings have an average lifespan of 136,000 to 160,000 km (approximately 85,000 to 100,000 miles). This is only a rule of thumb though, the actual lifespan of a wheel bearing depends on the quality of the wheel bearing and the operating conditions.

Why do wheel bearings fail?
The main reasons that a wheel bearing fails are:
Faulty installation – inappropriate tools such as a hammer or an impact wrench can cause damage to the exterior and or interior of the wheel end bearing causing the Wheel Bearing to fail prematurely. Also, re-using the old accessories such as bolts, nuts, circlips, split pins, seals,… instead of replacing them with new ones can cause the wheel end bearing to operate under abnormal or unsafe conditions, increasing wheel end bearing wear and risk of a car accident.
Impact damage or poor road quality – all impacts from driving through a pothole, driving over speed bumps or hitting the curbstone can damage a wheel bearing and reduce its lifespan.
Poor quality wheel bearing – a wheel bearing is continuously under enormous pressure. Wheel bearings constructed of low-quality materials can have poor heat-treatment, resulting in premature wear and failure.

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  Benefits Of Using Electric Bikes
Yazar: ppl8963q - , 04:06 AM - Forum: Genel Konular - Yorum Yok

We’re living in the future! In all aspects, technology has improved our lives, whether that be through breakthrough medicines, renewable energy or new sporting ideas to keep us active (and living) longer… one of these changes is an Electric Bike. You may have already seen one of these zipping through your streets. The question is, is it worth all the hype, especially for our fellow cyclists?
Nicknamed ‘E-bike’ (also called power bike or booster bike), it might be the biggest adoption of green transportation of the decade. ‘cycling is already green’ you may say, but it’s more than that. Think about them in place of small petrol scooters rather than normal bicycles. E-bikes use rechargeable batteries that can travel up to 25 to 45 km/h, much faster than most people would cycle, getting you to your destination quicker and in better shape. In a nutshell they offer low cost, energy efficient, and emission-free transportation which also has physical and health benefits.
But, why exactly is this such a good idea? Here are 8 benefits that will remove all your doubts and make you think about purchasing an E-bike… prepare for the best ride of your life!

1. Assisted biking
E-bikes have what they call battery-powered “pedal assist.” Technically, this is a machine integrated within the Electric Moutain Bike to give your pedalling a boost. This can reduce stress and impact on your knees and thighs. Say goodbye to sweaty rides.
There are E-bikes that have specific boosting technology that can assist you to conquer hills and inclines, so you don't have to worry about any challenging terrain. People of all ages and health can ride flawlessly and for much longer with an E-bike. Longer rides mean more views and more possibilities for lunch stops! And if you want to check out the most affordable pedal-assist electric bike to reap some amazing benefits, it is recommended to see these e-bike reviews.

2. Fast and flexible
The technology gives you the extra oomph you need to cover miles of distance with little effort. You can also still take advantage of the multi-purpose cycle lane and paths that are traffic free, brilliant if you’re living in a city to slash your commute time. These are getting more and more popular in cities as governments and councils urge people to give up their car.
The Electric Folding Bikes have been developed over the years and now look almost like a normal bike frame, with only the subtle ‘hum’ giving them away. Take advantage of the lithe form and durability of an E-bike without anyone being the wiser!

3. Improve fitness
According to a study of scientists at Switzerland's University of Basel, riding an Electric City Bike is just as good as regular bikes at improving fitness. Although cycling with an E-bike is pedal assisted, it's still an exercise after all and therefore good for your health, both mentally and physically. If you are more into fitness, there are customisable ones suitable for exercise, try looking at and comparing these before purchasing an E- bike.

4. Cut back expenses
If you use the Electric Cruiser Bike instead of a motor vehicle it will save you money in the long run. Petrol and diesel are costly in most countries, and occasional price surges can really impact on your budget. Same as buying ready essays for sale, you save not only your money but time as well. While with E-bikes, you can buy affordable batteries which can last you 18-50 miles after a full charge depending on the level of assistance you use.

5. They’re the future of transportation
We have all seen it in sci-fi movies. Sleek and sexy vehicles, none of which look old, bulky or have jets of smoke coming out the back, un-futuristic transportation is no longer being made. The Fat Electric Bike is on its way to being up there with its smart counterparts. Considering that this invention will improve continuously over time, what we have now might be the prototype of this promising transport.
Many countries in Southeast Asia took the lead in using E-bikes as a sustainable mode of transportation, and with the continuous rise of urban air pollution, there is a big future for E-bikes.

6. Nature-friendly
Climate change and global warming are serious issues and we all need to play our part. We might be facing our last stand to save our dying earth, and we can all contribute to this. E-bikes emit lower pollution per kilometre than motorcycles and cars. You can help by using an Electric Tricycle instead of a petrol or diesel car. They use energy with an average rate of 100 to 150 watts compared to 15,000 or so for a car. As a result, this can help to improve air quality.

7. Wide variety of designs
With technology, everything is almost possible, and as the marketability of Fat Tire Trikes increases, companies produce a variety of designs that can accommodate your needs. If there isn't the perfect one out there right now, you can be pretty sure there will be soon.

8. Easy to get one (in some countries)
In some countries’ laws, Folding Electric Tricycles are still considered as a bicycle, so if you don’t like the process of registration or getting licence plates or insurance, getting an E-bike can be a good choice. You can pop into your local Halfords or cycle shop and purchase one today, alternatively, you can buy them from Amazon and other online vendors easy peasy!

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  Choosing Pots and Pans to Improve Your Cooking
Yazar: ppl8963q - , 04:04 AM - Forum: Genel Konular - Yorum Yok

A few well-chosen pieces—starting with a good stockpot and a heavy sauté pan—can make a big difference
As a Fine Cooking editor, I’ve had the chance to observe lots of great cooks at work. From them, I’ve learned plenty—including the fact that good-quality pots and Frying Pans made of the right materials really can improve your cooking.
Rather than having a rack filled with pots and pans of all shapes and sizes, owning a few well-chosen pieces will give you the flexibility to cook whatever you want and the performance you need to cook it better.
I polled some of our authors to find out which Cartoon Mini Egg Pans were the most valuable to them and why. I then came up with six pieces, starting with two indispensables: an anodized-aluminum stockpot to handle stocks, soups, stews, some sauces, blanching, boiling, and steaming; and a high-sided stainless-steel/aluminum sauté pan with a lid for frying, deglazing sauces, braising small items like vegetables, making sautés and fricassées, cooking rice pilafs and risottos, and a whole lot more. The other four pieces I picked make for even more cooking agility and add up to half a dozen ready-for-action pots and pans that you’ll really use (see For every pot, there’s a purpose…).

For every pot, there is a purpose…
The letters identifying the pots key to the photo below.
A. Calphalon 8-quart (or bigger) stockpot, with lid. Simmer soup or cook a big batch of tomato sauce in this sturdy, nonreactive stockpot. It will do double-duty for boiling pasta and steaming vegetables, too.
B. All-Clad 3-quart sauté pan, with lid. Stainless coating with aluminum sandwiched all the way through makes for a responsive, durable, attractive Grill Pan. Great for frying, deglazing, and, of course, sautés. And it goes from stove to oven.
C. Mauviel Cuprinox 3-quart stainless-lined copper saucepan, with lid. Top-performing copper is heavy-duty and responsive, with a shiny stainless interior that’s easy to see into and durable. Copper tarnishes easily, but when it’s cared for, it looks great.
D. Lodge cast-iron skillet. Old faithful needs thorough drying and constant seasoning, but nothing takes high heat better, holds it as long, or puts a better crust on cornbread. It’s durable — and cheap, too.
E. Le Creuset oval enameled cast-iron casserole, with lid. Great for stove-to-oven roasts and stews and long, slow simmering. Its light-colored interior makes it easy to see into for deglazing sauces.F. Circulon Commercial nonstick skillet. This heavy-weight nonstick stands up to high heat and wear, goes from stove to oven, has an easy- gripping handle, and cooks delicate omelets as well as Cajun pork chops.

All good pans share common traits
In a well-stocked kitchen store, you’ll see lots of first-rate pots and Square Grill Pans. They may look different, but they all share essential qualities you should look for.
Look for heavy-gauge materials. Thinner-gauge materials spread and hold heat unevenly, and their bottoms are more likely to dent and warp. This means that food can scorch. Absolutely flat bottoms are particularly important if your stovetop element is electric. Heavy-gauge pans deliver heat more evenly (see “Good pans are worth their price…,” below).
To decide if a pan is heavy enough, lift it, look at the thickness of the walls and base, and rap it with your knuckles—do you hear a light ping or a dull thud? A thud is good in this case.

Good pans are worth their price because they manage heat better
“Good conductor” and “heavy gauge” are the key features of good cookware. Here’s how these characteristics affect cooking.
You get responsive heat. Good heat conductors, such as copper and aluminum, are responsive to temperature changes. They’ll do what the heat source tells them to do—heat up, cool down—almost instantly.
You get fast heat flow. Heat flows more easily through a good heat conductor, assuring a quick equalizing of temperature on the cooking surface.
You get even heat diffusion. A thicker pan has more distance between the cooking surface and the heat source. By the time the heat flows to the cooking surface, it will have spread out evenly, because heat diffuses as it flows.
You get more heat. Mass holds heat (heat is vibrating mass, so the more mass there is to vibrate, the more heat there will be). The more pan there is to heat, the more heat the pan can hold, so there’s more constant heat for better browning, faster reducing, and hotter frying.

You’ll want handles and a lid that are sturdy, heatproof, and secure. Handles come welded, riveted, or screwed. Some cooks advise against welded handles because they can break off. But Gayle Novacek, cookware buyer for Sur La Table, has seen few such cases. As long as handles are welded in several spots, they can be preferable to riveted ones because residue is apt to collect around a rivet.
Many pans have metal handles that stay relatively cool when the pan is on the stove because the handle is made of a metal that’s a poor heat conductor and retainer, such as stainless steel. Plastic and wooden handles stay cool, too, but they’re not ovenproof. Heat- or ovenproof handles mean that dishes started on the stovetop can be finished in the oven.
All lids should fit tightly to keep in moisture. The lid, too, should have a heatproof handle. Glass lids, which you’ll find on certain brands, are usually ovensafe only up to 350°F.
A pan should feel comfortable. “When you’re at the store, pantomime the way you’d use Soup & Stock Pots or pan to find out if it’s right for you,” advises Fine Cooking contributing editor and chef Molly Stevens. If you find a pan you love but you aren’t completely comfortable with the handle, you can buy a rubber gripper to slip over the handle. Just remember that grippers aren’t ovenproof.

Some pans need special talents
Depending on what you’ll be cooking in the pan, you may also need to look for other attributes.
For sautéing and other cooking that calls for quick temperature changes, a pan should be responsive. This means that the Baking Dishes & Pans are doing what the heat source tells it to, and pronto. For example, if you sauté garlic just until fragrant and then turn down the flame, the pan should cool down quickly so the garlic doesn’t burn. Responsiveness isn’t as crucial for boiling, steaming, or the long, slow cooking that stocks and stews undergo.

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  How to Use Crutches, Canes, and Walkers
Yazar: ppl8963q - , 04:02 AM - Forum: Genel Konular - Yorum Yok

If you break a bone in your leg or foot, have a procedure on your knee or lower leg, or suffer a stroke, your doctor may recommend that you use a walking aid while you are healing or recovering. Using crutches, a cane, or a walker can help keep your weight off your injured or weak leg, assist with balance, and enable you to perform your daily activities more safely.
When you are first learning to use your walking aid, you may wish to have a friend or family member nearby to help steady you and give you support. In the beginning, everything you do may seem more difficult. With just a few tips and a little practice, though, most people are able to quickly gain confidence and learn how to use a walking aid safely.
Walking Cane can be helpful if you have minor problems with balance or stability, some weakness in your leg or trunk, an injury, or a pain. If you are elderly, using a single point cane may help you to walk more comfortably and safely and, in some cases, may make it easier for you to continue living independently.

Crutches
If your injury or surgery requires you to get around without putting any weight on your leg or foot, you may have to use crutches.
Proper Positioning
When standing up straight, the top of your Walking Crutches should be about 1-2 inches below your armpits.
The handgrips of the crutches should be even with the top of your hip line.
Your elbows should be slightly bent when you hold the handgrips.
To avoid damage to the nerves and blood vessels in your armpits, your weight should rest on your hands, not on the underarm supports.


Commode Chair is a portable chair designed for people with disabilities and older people. An easy-care portable chair can be moved at the desired place and has arms to support people to get in and out comfortably.
The commode chairs from Singapore are strong enough to support the people who have put on extra weight. This article aims to highlight the perks of having a commode chair for elderly and disabled people.
Types of Commode Chair
There are many types of commode chairs out there in the market. However, knowing the right kind of commode chair for you can save you a lot of time and stress. Listed below are some of the main types of commode chairs.

  • Static commodes
As the name implies, Static commodes are not mobile commode chairs as they don’t have wheels. However, you can carry them to the required place. These chairs have detachable arms, which eases the process of lateral transfer. Many static commodes also come with handles for a better user experience.
  • Portable commodes
The portable commodes are mobile commode chairs as they come with four wheels and can easily be moved on tiles, carpet, and wooden floors. To provide more privacy to the users, these can be carried over to modern toilets.

Walkers and canes can be lifesavers for older people, but a new study highlights the downside of using them without training.
“A lot of older adults seem to struggle with their Walking Aids . . . they often drag along their walking aids like a burden with a difficult gait pattern as a result, possibly increasing the risk of falling,” said the study’s lead author, Tine Roman de Mettelinge of Ghent University in Belgium.
Older people need to be able to function independently, but gait problems can undermine that, even leading to nursing home admission, Roman de Mettelinge and her coauthor point out in the Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy.

For persons with disabilities, taking a shower is no small task. Bathing is supposed to be relaxing, but it can sometimes feel downright terrifying. The possibility of falling and getting bumps and bruises or ending up in the hospital can cause this to be a dreaded task. Instead of risking your health, here are several reasons why owning your own shower chair is a good idea.
1. Helps to improve your safety. Do you ever feel afraid of taking a bath or shower? The possibility of falling is most likely on your mind and a shower chair or Bath Chair and Stool can help put your mind at ease. Using a shower chair or bath chair helps to increase safety by decreasing the chance of you falling by providing a secure area in a slippery shower or bath. Shower Chairs and Bath chairs are especially useful for those that are in wheelchairs, the elderly, or anyone who finds excessive movement painful or difficult. You do not want to risk falling and possibly ending up in the hospital and causing yourself pain.
2. Hygiene is so important. Bathing while traveling can be a nightmare for people with limited mobility. When you own your own personal shower or bath chair you can take it with you! Who really knows how clean the bath and shower chairs at hotels really are and why should you put your health and hygiene at risk? Is it clean? Is it sturdy? Is it broken? A shower or bath chair is a very personal piece of equipment and using one that others have used leaves you to wonder. You don't want to risk infecting yourself with another's virus or bacteria or using equipment you are unfamiliar with and unsure of its safety.

What is a raised toilet seat?
Raised Toilet Seat is a device that’s used in place of, or underneath, a regular toilet seat. Also called an elevated toilet seat, a raised toilet seat is intended to provide extra height, so you don’t have to squat low.
Depending on additional features, these toilet seats may also reduce the risk of slips and falls while getting on and off the toilet.
A primary care doctor or occupational therapist (OT) may recommend a raised toilet seat for a number of reasons, including:
  • reduced strength and mobility in the legs and hips

  • a recent hip replacement surgery

  • other recent surgeries, such as knee or back surgery

  • a recent accident or injury

  • balance issues

  • to help maintain independence
While making major modifications to your bathroom can be costly, raised toilet seats offer alternative adjustments that don’t require you to buy a whole new toilet.

Overbed table
A narrow rectangular table designed especially for hospital patients that spans the bed and is typically fitted with casters for moving and a crank for adjusting the height.
For people who are limited to their beds for long time, Overbed Tables provide a comfortable way to eat, read and write on the cozy bed.
These tables are not only for hospitals, generally used for keeping laptop, phone, food, drink and book in easy reach of the users.
Not only for the patients, elderly, disable, but healthy people could also find overbed tables are very handy to use.


The Wheelchair is one of the most commonly used assistive devices for enhancing personal mobility, which is a precondition for enjoying human rights and living in dignity and assists people with disabilities to become more productive members of their communities. For many people, an appropriate, well-designed and well-fitted wheelchair can be the first step towards inclusion and participation in society.
The United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and World Health Assembly resolution WHA58.23 all point to the importance of wheelchairs and other assistive devices for the developing world, where few of those who need wheelchairs have them, insufficient production facilities exist, and all too often wheelchairs are donated without the necessary related services. When the need is not met, people with disabilities are isolated and do not have access to the same opportunities as others within their own communities. Providing wheelchairs that are fit for the purpose not only enhances mobility but begins a process of opening up a world of education, work and social life. The development of national policies and increased training opportunities in the design, production and supply of wheelchairs are essential next steps.

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  HOW ARE PLASTIC BOTTLES RECYCLED?
Yazar: ppl8963q - , 03:59 AM - Forum: Genel Konular - Yorum Yok

Plastic bottles make life so much easier. They're lightweight and easy to hold, and they're also strong and hard to break. A plastic Spray Bottle is the best way to contain and carry many kinds of liquid, from water and soft drinks to oil to household cleaners and baby formula. The plastic bottle is a great invention, but what happens to it when that handy container is empty?

How Bottles Can Hurt the Environment
Since the 1970s, people who care about the environment and the health of our planet have been worried about how to dispose of plastic once it's been used. Today, about 60 million water bottles are thrown away every day in America, and it can take up to 700 years for just one plastic bottle to break down in a process called biodegrading, which is also the process that happens when a piece of fruit rots. These bottles fill up our landfills, and we need landfill space to bury trash that can't be recycled. Throwing away plastic also hurts the environment in other ways. As plastic decays, it can give off chemicals that get into our water and air and can make people, plants, and animals sick.
To solve these problems, people have worked together to develop a process to recycle plastic bottles and convert them into other useful items, including clothes, furniture, fences, and new plastic Lotion Bottles, bags, and containers.

The Process of Recycling Plastic
Recycling takes many steps. First, the bottles have to be collected from homes, businesses, and other sites. Then, every plastic bottle must be separated from metal, glass, and other things that people put into recycle bins. The plastic bottles are also sorted by the type of plastic they're made from. Then, the bottles are cleaned remove any food, liquid, or chemical residue.
Next, all of the Airless Bottles are ground up and shredded into flakes. Finally, they are melted down and formed into small pellets, each about the size of a grain of rice. The pellets are bundled up and sold to companies that can be melt them and make them into many different products. Just think of all of the plastic toys, tools, electronic gadgets, and other plastic things in your own home. Many of these are made with recycled plastic.

Why Should We Recycle?
There are many reasons to recycle plastic bottles. For starters, recycling reduces the pollution that can come from the chemicals used to make these bottles. Recycling also helps cut down on the amount of trash thrown into landfills, so our garbage doesn't take up as much space. Recycling also creates jobs for people who collect recyclable things and work at places that turn them into new materials.
Recycling is good for the economy and the environment, and it's easy to do. All you have to do is remember to throw things into the right bins when you're done with them. But you can also do more, especially if places that you usually spend time don't have recycle bins. Students can talk to their school board, principal, and teachers about setting up recycling programs at school. You can also organize can and bottle drives to pick up litter and sort out recyclables in parks and along streets. And you can make signs to spread the word that recycling is easy and important to do.

You've seen the antiaging skincare claims, in newspapers, magazines, and even online: ominous photos of hypodermic needles posed alongside innocuous, even innocent-looking Cream Jar.
The message: Topical cosmetic creams promises the same wrinkle-relaxing, age-defying results as some pricey wrinkle-filling injections like Restalyne and Juva Derm, or even Botox.
But can they? If you're skeptical about what you read, you're not alone. Not surprisingly, some doctors also question the claims and the promises.

If you are someone who is not convinced to wear lip gloss again, this article is for you. The shiny lip gloss tubes deserve your attention. Why? Read on to know.

If you are someone who is always on the go and doesn't have enough time to do detailed makeup then just having a lip gloss tube in your bag can do the trick. A thick layer of your shiny lip gloss can make you look all glam and chic in a jiffy.
Be it a traditional, wedding look or a chic, western look, a Lip Gloss Tube works well with just anything. A lip gloss is versatile and looks great with just anything. If you like going with heavy makeup on the eyes, you can round off your look with a nude colored lip gloss. A bold red lip gloss can be used on days when you want to make a statement.

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  How to buy disposable face masks, according to medical experts
Yazar: ppl8963q - , 03:55 AM - Forum: Genel Konular - Yorum Yok

With concerns about Covid-19 variants across the country, many people are restocking their supply of disposable face masks to wear outside the home. And unlike the beginning of the pandemic, when face masks were in short supply, shoppers now have many options to choose from, like reusable cloth masks, Disposable Masks and respirators (N95s and KN95s, for example).
Perhaps the most important thing to keep in mind, experts said, is that any mask is better than no mask at all.
“Next to social distancing, face masking is without question the most effective mechanism to prevent transmission of viruses,” said MarkAlain Déry, DO, MPH, an epidemiologist and medical director for infectious diseases at Access Health Louisiana.


Types of disposable face masks
What medical-grade and nonmedical-grade Disposable Face Masks, as well as respirators, have in common is that they’re designed to be single-use face coverings — after you wear them, or when it gets dirty or contaminated, it goes in the trash.
That doesn’t actually mean you have to toss them after a single use, however. Depending on the mask and how long you wear it for, it can be worn multiple times if you remove and store it properly, and as long as it is not wet or contaminated, for example.


The pros and cons of disposable masks
According to Déry, medical-grade disposable face masks are better than cloth masks at protecting others if the person wearing them is infected.
“There have been a number of studies looking at the efficacy of disposable masks,” Déry said. “In terms of N95 and the three-layered surgical masks, these performed the best, both in terms of the inhalation and exhalation of the virus.”
On the other hand, medical-grade or not, disposable masks create more waste, since they can’t be reworn repeatedly. Plus, supplies may be limited, depending on local Covid surges and mask shortages at medical facilities. And since you have to continually buy new disposable masks, they can end up being more expensive.

Respirators
Seal-tested Half Facepiece Respirator masks include the N95 and other FFP2/3 forms.
These masks have tangled fibers to filter pathogens in the air, and they fit very close to the face. The edges form a seal around the mouth and nose.
The general public should not use these masks as they are in critical supply. Only healthcare workers should use them.

What Is A Cartridge Filter And How Does It Work?
A cartridge filter is a piece of tubular filtration equipment that can be used across various industries for an array of filtration requirements. A cartridge is encased within a housing or a casing and used to remove unwanted particles, pollutants, and chemicals from liquids. The cartridge is exposed to water, liquid or solvent that needs filtration, as it flows inside the housing and passes through the filter element. Cartridge filters can also remove submicron particulates.

Industrial Filters And Cartridges are widely used in industries like pharmaceuticals, chemicals, inks and paints, food and beverage, automotive manufacturing, cement industry, oil and gas, refineries, petrochemicals, and more. It is vital to clean these cartridges to ensure that they filter consistently for a long time.
Industrial filter cartridges from Gopani have high dirt holding capacity, are easy to install, clean, and maintain. When cartridge filters are sturdy, have a sturdy quality core, and have well-formed media layers, it is easy to clean and install them.
Some filter systems allow back-washing and come with a CIP design. Others must be removed from the housings, disinfected, and washed. When not in use, these cleaned filter cartridges are dried and sealed to avoid contamination or wear.
Filter cartridges are used in many industrial applications to trap contaminants and solid waste. These liquid filter cartridges must be replaced when they reach their pre-set differential pressure.

When To Replace A Filter Cartridge?
It is important to know when to replace your filter cartridge. The Acid Gas Cartridges may come with a general guideline that suggests the number of days it will work – for example, every 30 days or every 45 days based on its dirt holding capacity. However, the number of days a cartridge will last also depends on the concentration of contaminants in the liquid.

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  What Is Spunlace Nonwoven Fabric
Yazar: ggf5478y - 01-21-2022, 04:05 AM - Forum: Genel Konular - Yorum Yok

Do you know what spunlace nonwoven fabric is? Spunlace Nonwoven Fabric is one of many nonwoven fabrics. Everyone may feel unfamiliar to hear the name, but in fact, we often use spunlace nonwoven products in our daily life, such as wet towels, cleaning wipes, disposable face towels, facial mask paper, etc. This article I will introduce spunlace nonwoven fabrics in detail.

The Process Of Spunlaced Nonwoven Fabric
Nonwoven fabric is a kind of fabric that does not need to be woven. It just arranges polypropylene, polyester and other fiber materials directed or randomly to form a fiber net structure, and then uses mechanical,chemical or thermal bonding methods to reinforce them. Simply speaking, it is the bonding of fibers directly together, but it’s not interwoven and knit together by yarns. Therefore, when we get the nonwoven fabric, we will find that it has no warp and weft threads, and the thread residues can not be drawn out. It is easier to cut, sew and shape. Nonwoven fabric has the characteristics of short process flow, wide source of raw materials, fast production rate, low cost, high output, multiple product types, and wide application. It can also be made into cloths with different thickness, hand feeling and hardness according to requirements. Nonwoven fabric not only breaks through the traditional textile principle, but also provides a lot of convenience for our lives.


Wood Pulp Nonwoven Fabric can be divided into wet process nonwoven fabric and dry process nonwoven fabric according to the manufacturing process. The wet profess refers to the final formation of nonwoven fabric is in water. The process is usually used in papermaking. The dry profess refers to the final formation of nonwoven fabric is in the air,which including heat seal ( meltblown, spunbond, thermal bonding ), needle-punching, spunlace, chemical bonding, stichbond, etc.


How is Nonwoven Fabric used?
Beyond simple definitions, these engineered fabrics open up a world of innovative possibilities for all types of industries.
Nonwovens may be a limited-life, single-use fabric or a very durable fabric. Nonwoven fabrics provide specific functions such as absorbency, liquid repellency, resilience, stretch, softness, strength, flame retardancy, washability, cushioning, filtering, bacterial barriers and sterility. These properties are often combined to create fabrics suited for specific jobs while achieving a good balance between product use-life and cost. They can mimic the appearance, texture and strength of a woven fabric, and can be as bulky as the thickest paddings.


They are a priceless helper and you always have them in your kitchen. Every housewife will tell you that paper kitchen wipes are mainly used as a first aid for spilled fluids or smaller impurities. However, we found out what other possibilities of use they are hiding.
There is no household in which Kitchen Wipes would not be found. Whether cloth or paper for just a single use. Any housewife would rattle off several ways to use them. However, the question is whether these textiles are really suited for everything. Well, it’s more than questionable.

Best friend in the kitchen
Paper wipes are therefore a more practical choice than their cloth siblings. But we have not yet mentioned their biggest plus – their versatility. In addition to the kitchen, they can be used when washing and polishing windows, cars, bathrooms, gardens, or for pet accidents. But when we take a closer look at the kitchen, their usefulness is even greater. Be the judge!
Fried schnitzel, potato pancakes, forcemeat, fries, … Do you know what is the one thing these „fatty“ meals have in common? You guessed correctly. They are made in oil. Even though you like to eat them, the grease does not have to be dripping off them. Kitchen wipes will prove to be a great helper with this. Such fried food can be put on paper wipes and they will take care of the excess fat.

Industrial Wipes are increasingly used today because of their softness and other properties such as disposability. The consumption of wipes today is, as a report by the Centre for Strategic Economic Studies of Victoria University in 2000 states, "worldwide consumption of technical textiles grew from around US$ 33 billion in 1985 to almost US$50 billion in 1995, and it is predicted that it will reach US$ 72 billion by 2005 ". The worldwide market for technical textile grew at a compound annual rate of 4.2% over the decade 1985 to 1995, and it is forecast to grow at a slightly slower compound annual rate of 3.8% over the decade 1995 to 2005.

A great deal of work has been done on the properties of wipes by Vera Soukupova. This paper discusses properties including bending rigidity, abrasion, wicking, compressional properties, and surface properties obtained by the Kawabata evaluation system on the properties of Wet Wipes. These were not considered by previous workers. The development of non-woven for hygiene products is characterised by its quality demand on the products and increased growth in its volume.

On the industrial end of the non-woven wipes market, the biggest trend has been attempts by manufactures to increase the market share held by non-woven wipes over competitors, rags and rental shop towels. The latter dominates about half of the industrial wiping market, while non-woven represents around a third and rags take the remaining market share.

A wealth of evidence has shown that wearing a Filtering Half Mask helps prevent people from spreading the virus that causes COVID, SARS-CoV-2, to others and from becoming sick themselves. But there has been less guidance from public health officials on what kind of masks provide the best protection.
Early on in the pandemic, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization told the public not to wear N95 respirators, a type of mask that is made from high-tech synthetic fibers and provides a high level of protection against virus-laden airborne particles called aerosols. That was because there was then a shortage of such masks—and health care workers desperately needed them. At the same time, both agencies said there was little risk of aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2. They recommended cloth masks or other homemade face coverings that can stop some relatively large virus-carrying droplets even as it became clear that SARS-CoV-2 commonly spreads through aerosols—and as the supply of better-quality Disposable Face Masks increased.
There is now a cornucopia of high-filtration respirator-style masks on the market, including N95s, Chinese-made KN95s and South Korean–made KF94s. They have been widely available and relatively affordable for months and provide better protection than cloth or surgical masks. Yet it was not until September 10 that the CDC finally updated its guidance to say the general public could wear N95s and other medical-grade masks now that they are in sufficient supply.

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  Transformer: What is it? (Definition And Working Principle)
Yazar: ggf5478y - 01-21-2022, 04:02 AM - Forum: Genel Konular - Yorum Yok

What is a Transformer?
A transformer is defined as a passive electrical device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through the process of electromagnetic induction. It is most commonly used to increase (‘step up’) or decrease (‘step down’) voltage levels between circuits.

Working Principle of Transformer
The working principle of a Power Transformer is very simple. Mutual induction between two or more windings (also known as coils) allows for electrical energy to be transferred between circuits. This principle is explained in further detail below.

Transformer Theory
Say you have one winding (also known as a coil) which is supplied by an alternating electrical source. The alternating current through the winding produces a continually changing and alternating flux that surrounds the winding.
If another winding is brought close to this winding, some portion of this alternating flux will link with the second winding. As this flux is continually changing in its amplitude and direction, there must be a changing flux linkage in the second winding or coil.
According to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, there will be an EMF induced in the second winding. If the circuit of this secondary winding is closed, then a current will flow through it. This is the basic working principle of a Distribution Transformer.
Let us use electrical symbols to help visualize this. The winding which receives electrical power from the source is known as the ‘primary winding’. In the diagram below this is the ‘First Coil’.
The winding which gives the desired output voltage due to mutual induction is commonly known as the ‘secondary winding’. This is the ‘Second Coil’ in the diagram above.

A transformer that increases voltage between the primary to secondary windings is defined as a step-up transformer. Conversely, a transformer that decreases voltage between the primary to secondary windings is defined as a step-down transformer.
Whether the transformer increases or decreases the voltage level depends on the relative number of turns between the primary and secondary side of the Dry Type Transformer.
If there are more turns on the primary coil than the secondary coil than the voltage will decrease (step down).
If there are less turns on the primary coil than the secondary coil than the voltage will increase (step up).
While the diagram of the transformer above is theoretically possible in an ideal transformer – it is not very practical. This is because in the open air only a very tiny portion of the flux produced from the first coil will link with the second coil. So the current that flows through the closed circuit connected to the secondary winding will be extremely small (and difficult to measure).

LV switchgear layout: Design & Size
Low voltage (LV) switchgear is a broad terminology that includes a wide range of equipment like circuit breakers, switches, offload isolators, MCCBs, etc. within the 1 kV rating required to protect the LV system. The most common use of HV And LV Switchgear is in the LV distribution board which further comprises multiple segments like the main incomer, sub-incomers, feeders, etc. the size, configuration, and physical layout for switchgear vary as per specific requirements and standards.
The switchgear is of different type based on the voltage level at which it operates. HV switchgear operates at a voltage level of above 33 kV. MV switchgear operates at the voltage level of 33 kV and below. Likewise, LV switchgear operates at the voltage level of 1.1 kV maximum.
Irrespective of particular voltage levels, switchgear are known for their complete reliability, quick operation, and absolute isolation compared to other similar devices.

Compact Secondary Substations (CSS)
Compact Substations are used for energy transformation in secondary distribution network from MV to LV or LV to MV. CSS is a type tested and arc tested assembly comprising an enclosure containing medium voltage (MV) switchgear, distribution transformers, low voltage (LV) switchboards, connections and auxiliary equipment to supply low voltage energy from medium voltage systems. These substations are typically installed in locations accessible to the public and ensure protection for all people according to specified service conditions.

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